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双语新闻 | 如何写好论文-2
文章来源:知识人网整理       更新时间:2020年07月24日

  Each journal has its own requirements and style guide. These instructions tend to have different titles, for example: ‘instructions for authors’, ‘notes for authors’, ‘author guidelines’. They often appear under a page called ‘author resources’. The guidelines include:

  每个期刊都有自己的要求和风格指南,这些说明往往有不同的标题,例如:“投稿须知”、“作者须知”、“作者指南”等。这些内容通常会出现在名为“作者资源”的页面下。指南包括:

  • types of titles that are acceptable

  可接受的标题类型

  • structure of paper – for example, is the review of the literature near the beginning of the article or at the end? Are the Results included in the Discussion or in a separate section? Is there a Conclusions section?

  论文的结构—— 例如,对文献的回顾是在文章的开头还是结尾?结果是包含在讨论中还是在单独的部分中?是否有结论部分?

  • layout (including how the Abstract should be presented – one long paragraph, or 5–6 short paragraphs)

  布局(包括摘要的呈现方式—— 一个长段落,或5-6个短段落)

  • structure of sections - some journals prescribe exactly how certain sections (most commonly the Discussion) are organized, and what subheadings should be included

  章节结构—— 一些期刊明确规定了某些章节(最常见的是论述)的组织方式,以及应该包括哪些副标题

  • use of passive rather than personal style (we, I)

  使用被动而非个人风格(我们,我)

  • how to make citations

  如何做引文

  • how to arrange the bibliography

  如何排列参考文献

  • use of key words

  关键词的使用

  • American or British spelling

  美式或英式拼写

  从所选期刊和同一领域的高影响力期刊上下载作者指南

  Downloadthe instructions for authors from your chosen journal AND from a high impactjournal in the same field

  It is vital that you rigorously follow your chosen journal’s instructions to authors. So download these instructions from the journal’s website before you start writing. If you opt for a low impact journal, you will still find it very useful to look at the instructions of an equivalent high impact journal. Higher impact journals tend to have better author resources, which are useful for all authors, not just for those in the specific field of the journal itself.

  严格遵循所选期刊对作者的投稿说明至关重要。所以,在您开始写作前,请先从该期刊的网站上下载这些说明。如果您选择低影响力的杂志,就会发现看一本同类的高影响力杂志的说明是非常有用的。影响力较大的期刊往往拥有更好的作者资源,这不仅对拥有期刊本身特定领域的作者有用,而且对所有作者都是有用的。

  If no journals in your discipline offer such resources, then I suggest that you look on the ‘Welcome to resources for authors’ page of the website of the British Medical Journal (bmj.com), one of the world’s most prestigious journals. Even if you are not a medical researcher, the resources you will find there are very helpful.

  如果在您的学科中没有期刊提供这样的资源,那么我建议您看看英国医学杂志(bmj.com)网站的“欢迎访问作者资源”页面,该期刊是世界上最具影响力的期刊之一。即使您不是一个医学研究人员,您会发现这些资源依然非常有帮助。

  The medical community has made a concerted effort to improve the quality of papers published in its journals. So reading one or two medical papers could help you learn techniques for clear structure and clear concise writing.

  医学界经过群策群力,提高其期刊发表论文的质量。因此阅读一两篇医学论文可以帮助您学习清晰的结构和简洁的写作技巧。

  阅读并分析论文以进行文献综述,并注意论文的结构

  Read and analyze papers for your literature review, and note how they are structured

  Once you have chosen your journal, look at the most frequently cited papers to see how the authors rationalize the various steps of their research. Try to use papers that you will probably quote in your section on the review of the literature, and which are highly relevant to your topic and/or classic papers in your general field.

  一旦您选择了发文期刊,就看看最常引用的论文,看看作者对他们研究的各个步骤是如何进行理性解释的。尽量使用您可能在文献评论部分引用的论文,这些论文与您的主题和/或您所在领域的经典论文高度相关。

  For example, you could create a table with some or all of the following headings:

  例如,您可以创建包含以下几个或所有标题的表:

  ■problem that the research addresses

  该研究解决的问题

  ■background information and relevant references

  背景资料及相关参考文献

  ■elements that validate the level of innovation of the research

  验证该研究创新水平的要素

  ■conceptual model, methodology or procedure that the research takes into consideration

  该研究考虑的概念模型、方法论或程序

  ■materials, equipment and software used

  使用的材料、设备和软件

  ■method used and the operational steps that the author carried out

  采用的方法及实施的操作步骤

  ■results achieved取得的结果

  ■analysis and interpretation of these results

  分析和解释这些结果

  ■strengths and weaknesses of the research, the insights demonstrated

  该研究的优缺点,论点的论证

  ■implications for further research

  对进一步研究的影响

  Then you can fill in your table with brief notes for each of the papers you have analyzed. This analysis should help you to:

  然后,您可以在表格中对您分析过的每篇论文做简要说明。这些分析将对您的写作大有帮助:

  1. write your own literature review, because after this analysis you will be very familiar with the literature

  写自己的文献综述,因为在分析之后,您会非常熟悉这些文献

  2. identify the differences in other researchers’ approaches and results compared to your research

  发现您和其他人在研究方法和结果上的差异

  3. note down the strengths and weaknesses (including possibly bias) in the work of others

  记下他人工作中的优点和缺点(包括可能存在的偏见)

  These three points should enable you to understand in what ways your research is unique, innovative, interesting and useful, and how it extends what is already in the literature. Your aim is to find a knowledge gap to fill.

  以上三点应该能让您了解自己的研究在哪些方面是独特的、创新的、有趣的和有用的,以及它是如何在已有文献基础上扩展的。您的目标是找到一个知识缺口来填补。

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